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Domestic violence. In Puerto Rico, the Law for the Prevention and Intervention with Domestic Violence (Law 54 of 1989) defines it as “a pattern of constant conduct of use of physical force or psychological violence, intimidation or persecution against a person by his or her spouse.” , former spouse, a person with whom you cohabit or have cohabited, with whom you have or have had a consensual relationship or a person with whom you have procreated a daughter or a son, to cause physical harm to your person, your property or the person of another or to cause serious emotional harm.” Call Hogar Ruth to access services and support if you are experiencing domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking or dating violence. Call confidentially at 787-883-1884 | 787-883-1805 | 787-792-6596 | 787-360-3319


  • Are you afraid of how your partner will react?

  • Are you afraid of disagreeing?

  • Have you isolated yourself from your friends or family because your partner makes you jealous?

  • Have you had to do things that you don't want to do in private with your partner?

  • Has your partner hurt you?

  • Do you feel intimidated or controlled by your partner?

  • Has your partner threatened to harm other people?

  • Does it prohibit you from working?

  • Do you have to explain everything you do and who you talk to to avoid anger?

If your answer is YES to any of these questions, you may be suffering from intimate partner violence. Violence can manifest itself in different ways. Seek help and get oriented.



  • Physical abuse: Using physical force to cause harm to the partner or to force them to perform an act that they do not want. It includes hits, kicks, punches, pushes, bites, fractures, wounds, mutilations, etc. Sometimes weapons such as knives, machetes, bats and firearms are used.

  • Psychological abuse: Devaluing and ridiculing the partner, making them feel bad about themselves and impoverishing their self-esteem. Offend their family and friends or destroy their property to scare them. Insult, threaten, intimidate, as well as use other strategies to exert power and control over her.

  • Sexual abuse: Using violence in sexual approaches and treating the partner as a sexual object. Demanding sexual relations without the consent or desire of the couple. Forcing the couple into unwanted sexual practices and attacking their sexual parts.

  • Restriction of freedom: Using violence or intimidation against the partner to limit their freedom. Control what she does, who she associates with and where she goes. Control your outings, not allowing you to visit relatives or friends, as well as control your telephone and email. Prohibit or hinder their study and work plans or efforts.




  • Known as the Duluth Model, it is the result of interviews conducted with survivors of intimate partner violence and aggressors. In the Wheel of Power and Control we find the most common forms of abuse and control that an aggressor exercises over his victim:

  • Economic Abuse:

  • Try to prevent the woman from getting a job or keeping it if she already has one. He forces the woman to ask for money. Assign a monthly payment. Appropriate the money she earns. He punishes her until she quits

  • Emotional Abuse:

  • Ridicule the woman and make her feel bad about herself. Make her believe she is crazy. Using mental and/or psychological games, which make the woman herself doubt what she is experiencing.

  • Isolation:

  • Control what he does, who he interacts with, who he talks to, what he reads, where he goes, using jealousy as a form of justification for these actions.

  • Use of Coercion and Threats:

  • Using threats that emotionally hurt the woman; threatening the woman with: taking away the children, leaving her, attacking her, accusing her of abandoning the home. Threaten suicide or her death.

  • Minimize, Deny, Blame:

  • Minimize abuse without taking the victim's interests seriously. Deny that abuse has occurred. Blaming the victim for causing the abusive behavior on the part of the aggressor, which causes the aggressor not to assume his share of responsibility.

  • Intimidation:

  • Frighten the woman through gestures, looks or raised voices. Also throwing things at her, destroying her property, breaking things in front of her. It has, therefore, a direct relationship with non-verbal language.

  • Manipulation of Daughters and Sons:

  • Make her feel guilty for what happens to her sons and daughters. Use them to send you messages. Use visits to daughters and daughters as a way to continue punishing women.

  • Male Privilege:

  • Treat women like a servant. Making important decisions without consulting the woman. Act like the king of the house.



  •  Fantasías o amenazas de cometer suicidio u homicidio

  •  Historial de conducta agresiva

  •  Historial de violencia en su familia

  •  Conducta de control, centralizada en la pareja

  •  Roles sexuales rígidos o expectativas irreales de la pareja

  •  Enamoramiento rápido o celos

  •  Amenazas de violencia o agresiones pasadas

  •  Abuso verbal o empleo de la fuerza en discusiones

  •  Uso de la fuerza durante la relación sexual

  •  Aislamiento e hipersensitividad

  •  Crueldad con niños y niñas

  •  Responsabiliza a las demás personas por sus emociones y acciones

  •  Cambios súbitos de humor



Some of the effects of volence

       in women they are:

  • Low self-esteem

  • Sense of helplessness and helplessness

  • Fear in decision making

  • Diseases caused by tension

  • Insomnia

  • Loss of appetite

  • Be extremely accommodating

  • Feeling guilty about the situation

  • Isolation

  • paralyzing fear



  • Phase 1 Voltage Buildup:

  • The tension stage is mainly characterized by the increase in the couple's tension as a result of a greater number of conflicts of various kinds. There is increased anxiety and stress on the part of the victim, since the aggressor increases emotional, physical and mental demands.

  • Phase 2 Violent Explosion:

  • The aggression, explosion or “sudden” phase is the one where the aggressor discharges the tension obtained in the previous period; characterized by violent behaviors of greater intensity. In other words, it is the period in which the aggressor hits or sexually abuses the victim. Although it is the shortest period, it is also the strongest psychologically speaking.

  • Phase 3 Honeymoon:

  • The cycle of violence enters its final stage when the aggressor decides to repent for his or her actions. He also begins to behave in a friendly manner and tries to compensate for the episode he experienced, showing that he is still the person he was at the beginning of the relationship or that he can at least control himself.

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